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Major advances in nanomaterials in the aerospace industry

Time:2019-01-04 Views:165
Aviation materials technology continues to maintain rapid development momentum. In general, aviation materials continue to develop in the direction of high temperature, intelligence, micro-nano and design, and have made many important advances in advanced composite materials, high-performance metal structural materials, special functional materials, and electronic information materials. .

1. Advanced composite materials
      Advanced composite materials are developing in the direction of high temperature resistance and intelligence. Carbon fiber, ceramic matrix composite materials and resin matrix composite materials are the development priorities.
      The most widely studied ceramic matrix composites are ceramic matrix composites based on silicon carbide (SiC), mainly because silicon carbide materials have better high temperature resistance than other matrix materials and can withstand above 1316 °C. High temperature.
      At present, ultra-high temperature materials with important application value in the aerospace field mainly include multi-component super-high temperature ceramic material systems composed of boride, carbide and oxide. Among them, ZRB2-SIC ultra-high temperature composite ceramics has become the most promising material in the field of ultra-high temperature materials due to its rare high melting point, high thermal conductivity, high elastic modulus, good thermal shock resistance and moderate thermal expansion rate. one.
Russian researchers have developed a multilayer ceramic structural material based on a mixture of ceramics of silicon carbide and zirconium diboride, which is expected to withstand the extreme temperatures of 3000 ° C and can be used to increase the temperature of the jet engine‘s combustion chamber. Insulates when the spacecraft re-enters the atmosphere, or is used to make sensor covers that measure engine temperature.

2, high performance metal structural materials
      High-performance metal structural materials are developing in the direction of light weight and compounding, and lightweight high-temperature resistant metal and metal nanocomposites are the development focus.
      Japanese researchers have developed a transparent ferromagnetic nanoparticle film material, which is made of a mixture of nano-scale magnetic metal particles of iron-cobalt alloy and aluminum fluoride, which is expected to be used to directly display oil quantity, map, etc. on the windshield of an aircraft. The new generation of transparent magnetic devices for information brings innovative technological developments to industries including electrical, magnetic and optical devices.
3, special functional materials
      Special functional materials are developing in the direction of designability, micro-nano, and multi-functionality. New stealth materials, high-temperature protective materials, and functional materials such as deicing, decontamination, anti-corrosion, self-cleaning, and anti-reflection are the development priorities.
      Ceramic-based composite parts in rocket engines must withstand temperatures of 1600 ° C and are prone to cracking and brittleness in oxygen. Scientists have explored how carbon nanotubes can improve the damage resistance of silicon carbide-based composites. The test results show that the silicon carbide for growing carbon nanotubes is more resistant to high temperatures than the silicon carbide whiskers without carbon nanotubes, and it is easy to withstand the high temperature of 1000 °C. Under high pressure, the silicon carbide-grown silicon carbide can easily rebound under the nano-indenter, greatly increasing its crack resistance.
4. Electronic information functional materials
      Electronic information functional materials are developing in the direction of low-scale and miniaturization. Metamaterial antennas, gallium nitride semiconductor materials and gallium liquid metal alloys are the development priorities.